Business slowdown
TAKING ADVANTAGE OF A BUSINESS SLOWDOWN

Slowdowns, recessions and economic contractions are words we’re all too familiar with. Whether they’re caused by poor decision making or uncontrollable events, pulling your business through is a big concern. While all businesses might not have the financial capacity or ability to keep working – they are many that do. Here’s some great tips we found on capitalising on a business slowdown:

  1. Build your efficiency

When business is booming, it undoubtedly becomes more difficult to carry out maintenance and improve operations On any given day, making sure your business runs efficiently is a priority. However, it can be difficult to ran a growing business and balance the growing pains associated with it. The reduced demand for your product or service frees up time and resources for a complete internal audit.

Start with identifying and improving[1]:

  • Breakdowns in processes
  • Delays caused by poor project management
  • Redundancies and overlaps
  • Breakdowns in communication both internally and customer facing
  • Lack of integration in your tech systems and updates
  • Migration of paper files to cloud storage

Don’t forget to consult your employees and find out what tools they need to work efficiently and what they’d like to improve.

  1. Research your market

Use this opportunity to conduct market research and look externally as well as internally. Assemble a team and investigate the current market and understand how it has evolved. Consider researching:

  • Your competition – How are they dealing with the business slowdown? What techniques do the apply? Could you do better?
  • Other businesses – Businesses in adjacent niches are a great information source in keeping up with your industry. Look at any new development and how they could fit into your business. Also consider looking at older companies in your market and understand the steps they took to get where they are. Mature companies are excellent reference points when growing your business.
  • Upcoming trends – Staying relevant to your customers is the ultimate goal for any business. Take a close look at the past, current and upcoming trends in your industry and optimise your business accordingly. Include recent innovations and tech integration in your research.
  1. Nurture your sales pipeline

More than ever, a contraction is the ultimate time to cultivate and connect with your clients – prospects and existing. Call your pipeline and find out how you can support them. Focus on making them about connecting and less about selling. In the long run, it costs less to keep a customer than getting a new one. Develop loyalty in your clients by really nurturing your relationships. Somethings you could consider:

  • Special offers and discounts
  • Partnering in cross promotional
  • Re-purpose your sales teams to account management
  • Collect client feedback and testimonials

Use this opportunity to build and strengthen your business portfolio and take advantage of the boost in reputation.

  1. Update your product or service

Now that you have a better understanding of your market. Take the upcoming trends, feedback from your staff and customers and re-develop your product. Repurpose your staff into a research and development (R&D) unit and experiment with different prototypes. Use these prompts:

  • What does my market need? What do you need to develop a solution?
  • How can you tap into my current resources?
  • Do you need a new set of skills for your R&D? Hire or outsource?

With smart decision making and a clear path forward you should be able to avoid mass lay-offs and retain value in your team.  

  1. Train and upskill your teams

The re-hiring process is costly and time consuming. Companies develop alongside their employees, and re-starting this process is lengthy. Markets and industries are in constant evolution and your portfolio of skills needs to be too. You’ve already gone through the pain-staking process of developing a team and understand their strengths and weaknesses you can work to fill the gaps.

In line with your current goals and market trends invest in training, retraining and upskilling your teams – especially since you have the time.

Think of the ROI in terms of increased employee loyalty and retention as well as increased productivity from better skilled talent.[2]

  1. Repurpose your teams

As you will have ascertained certain members of your team will have a lot of time on their hands. For instance, your sales team will no longer have endless prospects and recruiters will be on a hiring freeze. Rather than letting them go, place them in a different part of your organisation or re-define their goals.

Move your sales people into account management to build a relationship with your clients. Use your HR team to find appropriate training programs for upskilling your teams based on the R&D research you completed.

A new emerging trend for businesses is ‘loaning-out’ employees. In China for instance, restaurants are loaning their employees to overwhelmed supermarkets. This simultaneously keeps the workers employed and both businesses afloat.

On top of the added engagement and loyalty from your employees, you will also be tightening your operations and solving problems you put off for so long.

  1. Vacations for you and your team

Transitions in operating styles – like working remotely – can be tough to adopt. Chances are you and your team will be plunged into new depths and face new challenges. Don’t be militant and hard with your team. Cut them and yourself some slack to adjust to the new situation – like working from home with their families.

It’s hard to find solutions when your focus is entirely on the problem.

  1. Play the long game   

Businesses that grow in recessions tend to act early, focus on growth and ratify a long-term perspective[3]. Understanding your market, growing in operational efficiency, upskilling your employees or fostering customer loyalty your business must have a strategy. Your goal should be to maximise your potential and minimise losses until the economy bounces back. Growth and success isn’t impossible during a downturn – you just don’t have the luxury of mistakes.

Take advantage of a business slow down and optimise your chances for success. Your team and business will be the better for it.

As usual, The Manpower Company (TMC) is here to support your business in any capacity we can. Developing training programs and auditing your HR needs is a component to a successful business. Reach out with your concerns and optimise your team at info@tmc.ke


[1] https://resources.workable.com/stories-and-insights/business-strategies-slowdown/#

[2] https://resources.workable.com/stories-and-insights/business-strategies-slowdown/#

[3] https://www.bizjournals.com/atlanta/news/2019/12/04/managing-your-business-in-the-next-downturn.html

REASONS THAT HINDER EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

Everybody thinks they’re a leader – most are far from it[1]. Like anything else, you can learn and practice effective leadership. While they are many paths to leadership, listed in this article are pitfalls ineffective leaders commonly find themselves in.

  1. You’re impassioned about your work and therefore your team.

“Becoming a leader is synonymous with becoming yourself. It is precisely that simple and it is also that difficult.” – Warren Bennis

Passion and zeal are infectious qualities and effective leaders know how to leverage them. By only focusing on the process rather than your team you fail to unlock the bond great teams share. It’s no secret that teams hit slumps quite often and impassioned leaders will find themselves frustrated. Frustration doesn’t run teams and neither do impassioned leaders. It’s you and your team against the world and not against each other.

  1. You’re not a role model

“If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader.”
-John Quincy Adams

Transformational leaders are greatly revered[2]. People want to be them, learn from them or work for them. An effective leader exemplify’s the behaviours and characteristics they encourage in their teams. As a result, people admire them and aim to replicate their behaviours.

If you want to become a better leader, work on modelling the qualities that you would like to see in your team members.

  1. You don’t listen thus communicate ineffectively

“When people talk, listen completely.” –Ernest Hemingway

You might have noticed that great leaders aren’t necessarily experts in their fields. Steve jobs was not a computer programmer, Elon musk is not an automotive engineer and Angela Merkel has a PhD in quantum chemistry. Leading is less about you’re acquired knowledge and more about getting people to apply theirs. Effective leaders communicate their visions to inspire their teams.

  1. You’re not clear about your expectations

“A leader takes people where they want to go. A great leader takes people where they don’t necessarily want to go, but ought to be.” – Rosalynn Carter

Articulately communication your vision helps employees visualise the end goal. Your team can hardly track their progress if they don’t know where they’re headed. However, transformational leaders go beyond this and have their employees set clear goals serving the bigger vision. This way you can monitor progress and adjust their approach accordingly.

Ineffective leaders will usually expect their team to adopt an entirely proactive approach. This becomes a problem if one or more of them are unclear about your expectations therefore working towards a different goal.

  1. You don’t teach your team

“Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.” -John F. Kennedy

While your team should be made up of qualified professionals, developing their skills even further is characteristic of an effective leader. If people gain nothing from working with you, how can you expect their full commitment? Companies are continually growing so why shouldn’t their employees. Let’s not forget that developing employees results in higher engagement levels and added value to teams.

Effective leaders don’t just bark orders but encourage growth by teaching. Teaching is essential in growing new leaders to take your place.

  1. You don’t know your own motivation

“If you’re not sure where you are going, you’re liable to end up someplace else.” — Robert F. Mager

If a leader views their role as “just a job”, it’s going to show. To be an effective leader, you need the right motivation. Truthfully, you can hardly expect to lead your team if you can’t lead yourself. So just as you would find out what motivates your team, perform a thorough self -examination. Channel the result and tie this into your vision.

  1. You don’t nurture talent

“The function of leadership is to produce more leaders, not more followers.” –Ralph Nader

If you’re intimidated by the talent around you, you’ll tend to work against it. Real leadership serves as a talent magnet. If you don’t attract talent, you can’t develop it and retain it. You’re competition probably can.

  1. You don’t give credit, you take it

“There is no investment you can make which will pay you so well as the effort to scatter sunshine and good cheer through your establishment.” – Orison Swett Marden

Effective leadership is hardly about the trophies on your shelf. Leadership is not about seeking the spotlight, and it should never be about the recognition. True leadership is about elevating others for their contributions, rather than crediting yourself. You’ll get a lot more out of your team being liberal with praise than selfish with it.

  1. You don’t get results

“A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way.” –John Maxwell

This is probably the biggest indicator of ineffective leadership. Where-in poor performance is influenced by the above-mentioned factors. When evaluating your skills, your results are the best place to start. Communicate with your team and get their take on what you can improve.

Do note, results are not necessarily achieved with good leadership. If you get your results by abusing your influence, manipulating or bullying your team – you’re ineffective. The ends do not justify the means. You’re career as a leader will likely end sooner than expected if you place optics over ethics.

If you want to be a good leader, work your team to their strengths and motivate them with your vision. Results will follow.

Having outlined the characteristics of an effective leader, fill in your own gaps and aim to put your team first. Do it right and you’ll see your effort reflected in the results.

Thoughts?


[1] https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikemyatt/2013/01/23/why-youre-not-a-leader/#1c5bde926fb8

[2] https://www.verywellmind.com/ways-to-become-a-better-leader-2795324#citation-2

How to work from home successfully
WORKING FROM HOME – HOW TO DO IT SUCCESSFULLY

Working from home sounds like a dream for many office goers – until you toss in a pandemic  and it’s less exciting. No doubt the change in routine is enough to throw anyone off their productivity game. I searched high and low and threw in some personal experience to bring you the ultimate guide to working from home – successfully.

  1. Pretend you’re going out

A change in routine isn’t an opportunity to slack off. When you get up in the morning, start your day as if you would if you were going to the office. Take a shower, dress like you’re leaving and eat like you’re leaving. Doing this little task will set your day in motion and you’ll kick start your productivity. It’s a lot easier to get into work mode in a suit and tie than in sweatpants and pyjamas.

  1. Separate your workspace from your living space.

Bringing work home is never fun and taking home to work is forbidden. This especially applies when working remotely. Identify a space you’ll make your office during work-time and make sure it’s free of distractions. Most people opt for a dining table or a study. Separating your workspace from your living space is a necessary boundary to successfully work from home. By dividing your space you can easily rest when you need to and work when you’re supposed to. It takes as much discipline to ‘switch on’ as it does to ‘switch off’.

  1. Work when you’re most productive

This is undoubtedly the biggest perk you get when working from home. Naturally, our motivation levels ebb and flow[1]. Learning when your productivity levels peak will allow you to schedule your harder tasks for when you’re most capable of doing them. Save the more routine and easier tasks like answering emails and making calls for when your productivity levels drop. Some people are early risers and can run a marathon first thing in the morning while some can write a thesis at 3am. Find your time and work with it.

  1. Get started early

While we’re not all early risers, getting a start on your work as soon as you wake up is a well-known secret for being productive. If your productivity doesn’t peak until later in the day, that’s fine. Tackle any tasks you can when you wake up – anything is better than nothing.

  1. Plan out your day ahead of time

We’re all guilty of wasting time planning out what we’re going to do – in the order we’re going to do them. It’s massively inefficient to start planning your day when it’s already begun. Ideally, after completing your work day you should spend an extra 15minutes planning where to start the next day. Don’t aim to plan more, aim to do more.

  1. Communicate expectations with anyone who will be home with you

Maximising productivity is all about minimising distractions. With lockdowns and mandatory curfews – you’re likely not the only one at home. Establishing boundaries early will save you a lot of heartache. Do this by scheduling your work time and making sure your family/roommates/kids respect your space when you’re working.

  1. Pick a definitive finishing time each day[2]

You’re responsible for protecting your time[3]. Being at home and working are exclusive concepts – you’re responsible for doing each at the right time. While it seems like working from home is the key to a healthy work-life balance – you’re bound to overindulge on one side. You have to be careful not to get caught up on either activity – work when you have to and rest when it’s time. Clear boundaries are the key to a healthy work-life balance.

Try out these tips and let us know how they work for you. Stay tuned for even more advice on working from home.

Also check out: habits of successful employees, How to get hired on the spot



[1] https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/productivity-tips-working-from-home

[2] https://blog.hubspot.com/marketing/productivity-tips-working-from-home

[3] https://medium.com/unsplash/an-introverts-guide-to-working-remotely-68ad78c84575

how to get promoted
HOW TO GET PROMOTED

Many of us would love to be promoted. Advancement usually means more influence, more money and more control over your day-to-day tasks – just to name a few perks.

But how do you get promoted? Isn’t it out of your hands?

Not really. Yes, the decision to be promoted is one your organisation ultimately has to make. But, by proactively pursuing a promotion, you drastically increase your chances.

So, what’s the best way to pursue a promotion?

  1. Be good at your job

This sounds obvious. But, if you aren’t performing at above-average in your job, it’s nearly impossible to be promoted. So, put your focus here first. But being good at your job isn’t enough – being good at your job just proves that you are good at your current job. To be promoted, you need to prove that you’d be good at a bigger job.The rest of the qualities demonstrate that.

  1. Know what you don’t know

No doubt being promoted adds a few more lines to your job description. Find out what’s required for the role and how you can fill in the gaps. In fact, your boss is the best resource to find out how best to improve. Try to look beyond the scope of the job requirements and consider what about your character you can also improve.

  1. Be invaluable

You were hired for a reason; this is likely due to your qualifications, experience and personality, so don’t be afraid of adding value to the organisation. You know what you’re talking about, so don’t be shy of voicing your opinion. CEOs need more than people who agree with them, they need people who speak up about the realities and challenges of the business and offer solutions to those problems.

  1. Look good, Feel good

When moving up in an organisation, confidence is non-negotiable. It might seem non-essential but dressing for the part is as important in preparing for the part. You’ll be representing your organisation in an even larger capacity and that means looking the part.

  1. Be in the inner circle

Having a good relationship with your superiors is an essential asset. Don’t be intimidated to talk to your CEO or ask your manager questions. Building a rapport throughout the company is an opportunity to network and understand the larger business needs. With understanding, you can add value in a way your competition cannot.

Further, being a trusted person within your company does not however mean always saying yes. Don’t take on more responsibility than you can handle. Gaining favour does not mean being a pushover to your superiors. For instance, if there’s an emergency and your boss needs you to work during your time off you should. However, if this emergency seemingly happens every weekend you should learn to say no.

  1. Titles are overrated, lead when you can

If you find yourself opting out of responsibility simply because it falls beyond your job description – think again. Leaders lead when the opportunity arises, not when they have a fancy title. The difference between those that get promoted and those who don’t is the initiative they take. Look for opportunities to shine and do what other have put off doing. Is there a filing cabinet that needs organising? Papers and receipts that need digitising? Unsurprisingly, solving the problems no one else will, gets you on your bosses radar! You’ll also find when you can identify the little tasks, the bigger ones are easier to see and solve.

  1. Know how to sell

Every organisation has a bottom line, and if you’re bringing in new business opportunities, you will always be seen as an asset. It doesn’t matter if you’ve been hired for marketing; it’s all about contributing in a bigger way. This doesn’t mean you need to be a walking billboard for your employer, but you should maintain a keen awareness of the opportunities that surround you, whether it’s a new client or a solution to an existing problem .

  1. Be comfortable with pressure

As expected, you need to be comfortable with stressors associated with the new position. Your superiors, will note how you respond to pressure and whether you can still perform. Furthermore, they’ll be interested in how you lead your team in these periods. It’s important you remain calm and collected when you experience stresses at your current job. Be honest with your boss about the situation but, give them a the plan you’ll use to deal with the work. This proves you can still make rational decisions that are good for the company even when you’re under pressure.

The standout employees are the ones who behave like leaders, even when their title is Intern. The irony is that when you’re more focused on the results than the promotion, your title will change faster than you can even imagine.

Title - Perks you can give your employees without breaking the bank - i
PERKS YOU CAN GIVE YOUR EMPLOYEES WITHOUT BREAKING THE BANK

Employer brand is defined as the company’s reputation and popularity from a potential employee’s perspective. It describes the values the company gives to its employees[1]. Leaders quite often overlook their employer brand or devote few resources to develop and grow it. A strong employer brand attracts and retains workers while turning them into advocates for the company. Harvard Business Review estimates that a bad reputation costs companies at least 10% more per hire[2]. And according to Gallup, 51% of employees are actively looking for different jobs or watching for opportunities[3]. Organisations that ignore the need for employer branding will miss their chance to keep talented staff onboard.

In addition to the standard benefit packages (Health insurance, retirement fund contribution etc.), here are a few more suggestions to strengthen your employer brand:

  1. Experiences, Employee discounts, rewards and freebies

Your employees deserve some time-out after a particularly demanding week. Think movie tickets, meals or gift cards. Companies will commonly offer a monthly ‘rotating’ gift card to a local spa or restaurant wherein a different employee benefits each month.

  1. Flexible schedule

According to Gallup, a job that allows a greater work-life balance is “very important” to 53% of employees[4]. Allowing your employees some leeway to dictate their hours heightens their engagement with no cost to the employer. Depending on how you adopt the model, some companies set minimum working hours for their employees, while letting them arrange how to fit it into their day. For example, if I had an 8 hour work day, I might prefer to begin at 10 am and end it at 6pm. Whereas another employee might prefer to start at 7am and end 3pm.

  1. Wellness programmes

Employee health should be as big a concern for employers as it is to their subordinates. Unhealthy employees don’t perform – and if they do, they don’t fulfil their potential. Cost, time and responsibilities are the most common barriers inhibiting the pursuit of wellness. Companies can implement a range of measures to tackle this issue. Subsidising gym memberships, organising regularly scheduled walks after lunch and offering healthy snack options are a number of ways to achieve employee wellness. Our personal favourite is hiring a personal trainer for a group session, which is very cost effective while benefiting a larger number of employees.

  1. Generous paid time off

No doubt the topic of time off makes managers and employers very anxious. If that sounds like you, consider focusing on results, not output. If employees deliver on performance goals, does it make a difference how much time they spend at their desks? You’ll find when you trust employees to decide how much time to take off, they work harder to meet deadlines thus increasing productivity and efficiency.

  1. Improve the office environment

While we’re not urging you to invest in expensive extra curricular options, making an office more receptive to the people who spend ALL their time there will boost your bottom line. Consider adding free snacks, Apple Music/Spotify memberships or a comfortable break room to your office. Better yet, all three!

  1. Peer Recognition

While we may not like to admit it, acknowledgement of what we contribute is important to us. So why should it not be the same for our employees? Try having your employees offer a reward to a fellow employee of their choosing. Recognition goes a long way in fostering employee confidence and loyalty

  1. Career Development Opportunities

45% of millennials and 31% of Generation Xers say a job that accelerates their professional development is very important to them[5]. With the world literally at our fingertips, knowledge has been made readily accessible. It’s easier than ever before to learn new skills with platforms like Udemy and Edx. Encouraging employees to pursue the subsidised courses will likely increase their value to your organisation.

  1. Mental health days

Burnout is a reality for a lot of people. While your employees’ mental health should be incentive enough to provide mental health days, here’s more: Organisations with highly engaged employees outperform low engagement organisations financially by 202%[7]. It’s good business to provide space and time for your employees to reset when they ask for it.

  1. Commuter benefits

Unfortunately the rates at which cost of living is rising isn’t proportional to the rate at which salaries increase. This means people continue to earn less while their bills go up. Offering to help employees manage their costs in getting to work is a major perk they’d be interested in. Consider fuel allowances, public transportation budgets or even a company bus.

This list isn’t in any way exhaustive. There’s a lot more action organisations can take to build their employer brand. A great employer brand costs businesses 50% less per hire and results in 50% more qualified applicants[6]. No business wants to pay a premium in higher salaries because of a bad or non-existent reputation. Like any other aspect of your company, you must invest the required time and resources to reap the benefits.

Tune in Every Monday and Thursday for more tips and tricks.

Follow The Manpower Company on Facebook for even more insights.


[1] https://www.talentlyft.com/en/resources/what-is-employer-brand

[2] https://hbr.org/2016/03/a-bad-reputation-costs-company-at-least-10-more-per-hire

[3] State of the American Workplace, Gallup, 2017.

[4] State of the American Workplace, Gallup, 2017

[5] State of the American Workplace, Gallup, 2017

[6] https://business.linkedin.com/content/dam/business/talent-solutions/global/en_us/c/pdfs/ultimate-list-of-employer-brand-stats.pdf

[7] State of the American Workplace, Gallup, 2017

How to Fix your Companies Talent Problem
HOW TO FIX YOUR COMPANY’S TALENT PROBLEM
What is a healthy and productive workforce worth to you?

Whether you’re a budding entrepreneur or an established organisation we all undoubtedly share one particular challenge – growing the right team. Beyond question this gets trickier the more niche your market. While you may have all the dedication and get all the results, a chain is only as strong as its weakest link. To remedy the lack of talent more and more companies are turning to remote workers aka telecommuters.

Economic strategy or workplace fad?

In all likelihood you’ve encountered countless trends, fads and instant-result solutions to your problems. Some overpromised their results, others flat out failed and maybe one actually worked. With the seismic growth of the Internet, pandemic prevention, congestion relief and even more factors, talk of remote work is growing. As Laurel Farrer, CEO of Distribute Consulting asks – is this particular trend economically justified or is it our evolving workforce craving modern convenience?[1] Well you know what they say, when in doubt – look at the numbers.

Sourcing information from Global Research Powerhouses – Stanford University, Gallup and Harvard University. Here’s what we found:

  1. Retention

In a survey, 54% of employees said they would switch to a job that offered them more flexibility. While, a further 54% said they were actively searching.[2] Further, an experiment conducted by Stanford, found that the attrition rate in employees who took up the opportunity to work from home more than halved compared to their office counterparts[3].

  1. Productivity

Remote workers are an average 20 -30% more productive than their office counterparts[4] and, another study revealed work output also increased 4.4% in teleworkers[5].

  1. Engagement

Gallup found 51% of the workforce was not engaged and this translated to a loss for companies[6]. Whereas remote workers had a greater return on engagement with a 41% reduction in absenteeism. Engaged workers produce 40% lower quality defects, 21% higher profitability and of course a 24-59% lower turnover[7].

  1. Performance

Remote workers showed a 13% performance increase in another study by Harvard. They attributed this increase to a reduction in break time and sick days in addition to a more comfortable work environment.[8]

  1. Profitability

The Chinese travel agency in a study, reported saving an average of $2,000 dollars a year per employee working remotely as a result of productivity boost and reduction in office space[9]. Further, Harvard noted that the average worker was willing to accept 8% less pay for the option to work from home and there is an effective increase in real salary without cost to the organisation –thanks to saving on commutes.

  1. Plenty of Fish

Lastly, remote workers offer you unflinching access to the best, qualified candidates in your market. Numbers are on your side and your options are limitless when hiring. You’d be fishing where the fish are.

Work place flexibility is no doubt a critical topic in the future of work, and employers who fail to consider it will renege on its benefit. If you believe remote work could be a key ingredient in your brand’s sustainability, you must invest in its development as a resource.

At The Manpower Company we dare to innovate, pioneer and evolve in the world of work. Outsourcing Human resources, relieves businesses of human resource management responsibilities thus allowing you to focus on what you do best. After all, isn’t it worth getting it right the first time?

What are your thoughts on workplace flexibility?

Follow us on Facebook at ‘TMC Kenya” for even more tips and tricks.

See you on Thursday for our next post.


[1] https://www.forbes.com/sites/laurelfarrer/2020/02/12/top-5-benefits-of-remote-work-for-companies/#39d4b95216c8

[2] https://www.gallup.com/workplace/238085/state-american-workplace-report-2017.aspx (pg. 169)

[3] https://nbloom.people.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj4746/f/wfh.pdf (pg 1)

[4] https://nbloom.people.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj4746/f/wfh.pdf (Pg 172)

[5] https://hbr.org/2019/08/is-it-time-to-let-employees-work-from-anywhere

[6] https://www.gallup.com/workplace/238085/state-american-workplace-report-2017.aspx

(Page 61)

[7] https://www.gallup.com/workplace/238085/state-american-workplace-report-2017.aspx (page 68)

[8] https://hbr.org/2019/08/is-it-time-to-let-employees-work-from-anywhere

[9] https://nbloom.people.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj4746/f/wfh.pdf (Page 170)

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